Fatty degeneration of liver


Gills pale
Instead of a normal bright red colour the gills are very pale in colour.
Generalized oedema
Body is swollen all over giving balloon-like appearance to fish.
Dark body colouration
The colours of the fish are darkened beyond their normal shade.
Exophthalmia - bilateral
Both eyeballs of fish are protruding.
Exopthalmia - unilateral
One eyeball of the fish is protruding.
Hanging at surface
Fish stays at water surface all the time.


Improper balance of feed, often caused by too much fat or carbohydrates in the diet. Another possible cause is deficiency of retinol/choline/biotin in diet. Affects older fish usually.


Changing diet can bring about almost total recovery.


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