Several species of protozoan parasites, with eight flagella (Octomitus). Also called Hexamita and Spironucleus Typically infects Trout/Salmon, in aquaria Discus, Angels, Goldfish & Shubunkins. It is a Fresh and Marine water disease.
Life cycle believed to be direct, relative importance of trophozoites/cysts not known. Route of entry to GI tract may be by mouth &/ or rectum.
Disease that can be cured if recognized and treated. It was believed that the parasite caused secondary bacterial infections, that caused the so called "hole in the head" to appear.
From Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development Nov.2011.
Catrin F Williams, S.Poynton et al.
Dr. Poynton, Sarah
Division of Comparitive Medicine
John Hopkins University of Medicine
Baltimore MD. USA