Ulcers - irregular
Irregular shaped ulcers are evident on the skin.
Milky patches on fins
Cloudy patches are scattered over the fin tissue.
Raised blister
Blister-like nodules appear above the skin.
Raised bumps
Solid looking raised bumps are evident on the skin.
Haemorrhages - fins
Fins are bleeding.
Haemorrhages - skin
Bloody haemorrhages are apparent over several parts of the skin.
Hiding abnormally
Fish hides behind rocks or suchlike, appearing seldom if ever.
Hyperaemia - fin base only
Excess of blood at base of fin.
Hyperaemia - general (Fin)
Excessive blood evident all over the fins.
Loss of membrane & rays
Fins are eaten away, both the rays & the interstitial membranes between
Subepithelial petechiae
Small bloody red spots appear on fins.
Bare rays
All interstitial tissue on fins has been eaten away.
Cloudy completely
Fins are completely covered in opaque/grey cloudiness.
Fins frayed or ragged
Fins look as if they are rotting away, giving eroded appearance.
Laying on side
Fish lies on side, usually motionless.
Listless and lethargic
Fish moves very lazily in water, much less than normal, lacks interest.


Multiplication of micro-organisms in the blood, often caused by bacteria. Multiplies massively in the bloodstream. Very serious condition. More usually however the cause is now recognizer as Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS)


Typically infects Catfish, Livebearers, Goldfish and Trout. Unless caught & treated in early stages, high losses must be expected.


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DNA and RNA diagnostic references

DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

From Rev., 24 (1), 201-213

N. Lorenzen & S.E.LaPatra

Note:-  This reference deals with the DNA of vaccines for this disease. 
However as there are many causative organisms it can be useful to look at the
 different DNA’s that have been used, and how they are created. 


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