Spirocamallanus (<i>Spirocamallanus</i>)


Anterior-posterior curvature of the spine
Lateral curvature of the spine.
Fish is fading away, looks as if it is starving to death.
Growth poor
Parasite infested fish show very slow or no growth, as parasite is taking the food.
Abdomen sunken
The lower part of the fish's body is hollow and wasted.
Faded colours
Colours of fish look washed out compared to normal.
Muscular atrophy
Muscles of fish show evident wasting away.
Listless and lethargic
Fish moves very lazily in water, much less than normal, lacks interest.


Parasitic nematode of the intestine. Found in marine fish. Can infect all species, but typically is found in butterfly and tangs, because of their eating habits. Parasite needs intermediate host, e.g. Shrimp. There are several species of this nematode parasite, many found in S.American rivers, but the symptoms they cause are very similar to the one we feature. 


Can be treated, and it is seldom quickly fatal. The outlook with careful treatment is good.


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DNA and RNA diagnostic references

An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its Parasite across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

From  PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56940.

Michelle R. Gaither , et al.

Dept .Ichthyology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California,


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